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Friday, October 3, 2008

The new Maoist Nepalese Budget.

Here is what you all have been waiting for the new Maoist Nepalese Budget! The title is rather confusing if not contradictory. The Maoists themselves are frank in calling the policy one of developing capitalism as a means of developing an economy that in many ways was almost feudal. However, the budget is also very much people oriented and tries to make living conditions much better for the Nepalese people. Many of the policies certainly have socialist aspects but at the same time the Maosits welcome foreign capital and joint public private developments. At the end of the article there are a few critical comments by various groups.


Maoist New Nepal: Industrial Capitalism Covered by Socialism
Posted on October 1st, 2008 by UWB
By Bishnu Pathak and Neil Horning
The reactions to the budget from the nation’s policymakers and critics are often guided by four motives. Those who made the budget in the past regard it as imbalanced and untenable and heap praise on their own budget. Others who suffered defeat in the CA polls from the Maoists are scared of the perpetual marginalization that stares them in the face and wish to see their Maoist rivals failing and faltering on all fronts and to stand thus vindicated. Another group of intellectuals, those affiliated to political parties other than the Maoist, appear inordinately critical in expounding their techno-statistical expertise on the budget and dub it as overtly ambitious and populist. The Maoists and the intellectual professionals close to them, however, claim the budget as a historical document, regarding it to be achievable, pro-poor, and growth-oriented, and blame their critics as feudal-minded. The donors, in general, remain neutral, at present, and the people are waiting for the budget to deliver in the field. For, that is where its ultimate test will lie.
“Ambition is imperative for launching Nepal into a new era” stated Dr. Baburam Bhattarai, Finance Minister, as he presented a total Rs. 236.15 billion to the Constituent Assembly (CA) for the Fiscal Year 2008/09 on September 19, 2008; 45% up from the last budget. Recurrent expenditure, estimated at Rs. 128.51 billion, comprises more than half 54.41% of the total allocation, with capital expenditure at Rs. 91.31 billion or 38.66%. For repayment of loans, Rs.16.19 billion (6.85%) is allocated. This estimated expenditure will be higher than the total allocation of last year by 39.7% and 44.5 % more than the revised expenditure. Recurrent expenditure will be increased by 40.6 % and capital expenditure by 64.5 % compared to the revised expenditure. Principal payments will be decreased by 1% against the revised expenditure. Out of the total expenditure, Rs.111.82 billion (47.38%) is allocated for general administration and Rs. 124.19 billion (52.62%) for development programs. Of the estimated financing for the current year, Rs. 129.21 billion (54.72%) will be borne by current sources of revenue. Out of the total foreign assistance of Rs. 65.79 billion (27,86%), Rs. 47.93 billion (72.85%) shall be borne by foreign grants, and the remaining Rs. 18.7 billion (27.15) by foreign loans. There shall be a net budget deficit of Rs. 41.11 billion (17.4%) that will be covered by mobilizing both sources.
The first Maoist-led Government of Nepal clearly put the people at the center of their strategy to institutionalize the federal democratic republic, arrive at a logical conclusion to the peace process, accelerate the process of socio-economic transformation, achieve higher economic growth for geographical and regional balance, create social justice and employment opportunities, and provide relief to the people to lay the foundation of a self-reliant and independent economy, optimally relying on national capital and indigenous resources.Priority policies and programs
• For the rational conclusion to the peace process, a relief package shall be provided to the families of the martyrs, the disappeared, conflict-affected persons, and the wounded. Subsistence support and allowances to the Peoples’ Liberation Army (PLA) shall be made available. People, who were involved in the peoples’ movement and the Madhesi movement, shall have relief provided to them as well.
• It is expected that double-digit growth shall be achieved within the next three years, ensured by high priority on building infrastructure of strategic significance and developing social infrastructure of human resource development such as in education and health.
• Social security shall be ensured to classes, ethnicities, regions, women, senior citizens, differently abled, widows, dalits, and endangered ethnicities.
• It shall give a top priority towards radical structural change of the agriculture sector, on which relies more than two-thirds of the country’s population, away from subsistence-oriented and feudal based production relations.
• Focusing on expansion of tourism, a triangular infrastructure between Kathmandu, Pokhara and Lumbini shall be developed, while constructing new airports of international and regional level in the next couples of years.
• Physical infrastructure for roads, railways and communication of strategic and long-term significance, such as East-West Railways, Kathmandu-Tarai Fast Track, Mid-Hill Highway and North-South Highway, shall be hastened
• Unlike the small scale support providing by previous governments, the new government shall allocate a Rs. 7.8 billion grant for a minimum of Rs. 1.5 million to a maximum of Rs. 3.0 million to be given to each VDC under the slogan of Hamro gaun ramro banau (make our village better and beautiful).
• With the slogan of “In clean water lies Nepal’s power,” the budget shall give a priority to producing capacity for 10,000 MW worth of hydropower in the next decade, irrigation (tarai and hill) and drinking water.
• “New Nepal, learned Nepal” and “New Nepal, healthy Nepal” shall be the new slogans of building competent human resources and investing huge efforts in education and health. The government intends to eradicate illiteracy in two–years and give universal access to basic health services.
• Public-private partnerships (PPP) shall be launched, prioritizing national industrialization. Special support shall be provided to sick industries on commercial footing through adopting the scheme and encouraging the development of mineral, agricultural and forest-based industries. Foreign investment will be encouraged for the exploration of minerals where feasibility studies have been already completed. Multinational companies will be invited for the exploration and extraction as well as production of petroleum products.
Theoretical Underpinnings
Finance Minister, Baburam Bhattarai, published “The Politico-economic Rationale for Peoples War In Nepal” in 1998 and “The Nature of Underdevelopment and Regional Structure of Nepal: A Marxist Analysis,” a cursory reworking of his much earlier PhD thesis, in 2003. The former work is to great extent an encapsulation of the larger (by orders of magnitude) latter work, just as the current budget reflects, to a major extent, the fulfillment of the ideas contained in both. It is important to note that both were completed long before the Maoists had officially accepted Multi-party Democracy.
It’s acceptance has apparently had little impact on Bhattarai’s policy proscriptions other than in their dilution among demands of coalition partners and post-conflict programs. The thrust of the New budget and that of Bhattarai’s previous work are essentially the same. “The Politico-Economic Rationale…” stresses that “In general, since the development of productive forces is faster and the development of production relations takes place at much slower pace, at some stage of development of society the productions relations block the development of the productive forces and this leads to retardation and distortions in society. Under such a situation it becomes necessary to smash the old production relations and to develop new production relations in their place.” “Productive forces” refers to available technology and “productive relations” to the social system’s allocation of roles (Landlord to peasant, industrialist to worker, etc). The piece considers Nepal’s productive relations to be semi-feudal. It determines the country’s “internal social and special” problems and outlines economic development policies and programs to address them as described in the following synopsis. Salient excerpts from the new budget have been provided.
• Semi-Feudal Relations and Retardation in Agriculture
“Under Nepal’s tenancy system specially in the share-cropping system, tenants are forced to till other’s land for bare subsistence needs rather than to earn capitalistic profit, the rights of tenants are not secure, the rate of rent is high, the tenants are bonded to the landlord with the high interest on loans and other labour service conditions apart from the rent on land. Because of all these, this labour-relation is of a semi-feudal type and of a retrogade nature. It is thus clear that the principal mode of surplus extraction in Nepali agriculture (and involving all sectors of economy) is the semi-feudal relation and the same relation plays the principal role in the underdevelopment and retrogation of the Nepalese agriculture (and by implication the whole economy).”
Development of agricultural productive forces has been stagnant due to semi-feudal production relations. Because the surplus value generated by agricultural production has been largely used to enrich the families of wealthy landlords rather than develop agricultural technology or irrigation, agricultural productivity has actually decreased over time and the vast majority of the population remains impoverished and engaged in traditional labor intensive subsistence farming. Attempts at reforming this system have largely gone to waste due to their oversight by a ruling class interested in maintaining the same productive relations.
• Decline of Industry and Expansion of Comprador and Bureaucratic Capital
In order for national industrial capitalism to develop, there must be a “capitalist class” who can invest capital and develop industry, a “free proletarian class” who are not bound to the land and can thus sell their labor any place at will and a “free market” where subsistence goods and means of production can be bought and sold. If one or all of these are lacking it is impossible to develop industrial capitalism. Unfortunately:
“historically in Nepal, as the primitive accumulation of capital from agriculture and trade sector has been centralized in the hands of the big feudals of the ruling classes and India-based comprador bourgeoisie and because up till now their hegemony in the economy still continues, the development of the national industrial capitalist class has been marred.”
The centralization of capital in the hand of feudals, royals, and foreigners has resulted in an industrialization distorted toward production of luxury goods (beer, wine, cigarettes, soft drinks) and others with few indigenous roots or added value, rather than basic goods (cement, electricity, irrigation) or intermediate goods (construction material, thread, paper). Feudal production relations have prevented a market from developing either for basic/intermediate goods or labor. Where a market has developed, “Comprador and Bureaucrat capital” has assisted in foreign products out competing local ones. Comprador and bureaucratic capital has played a doubly negative role by both blocking the development of free industrial capitalism and transferring capital out to industrialized nations. While tourism is an important source of foreign exchange, most of the materials it consumes are imported and 50% or the earnings go back to foreign countries.
• Regional Inequality and the Nationality Question
While the vast majority of the population remains in the countryside, the overwhelming majority of economic and infrastructure development has take place in the few urban centers owing to the capital investment there of the few rural elites. Although there has been a vast migration of labor, it has been primarily from the hills to the terai and from agricultural to agricultural production rather than agricultural to proletarian production. Thus regional tensions have been exacerbated in the tarai and mountainous regions developed even less. Underdeveloped regions are disproportionately inhabited by indigenous nationalities, and thus questions of regional inequality become intertwined with questions of identity.
• Economic Development Policyo Revolutionary Change of Production Relations
“Nepalese society the retrograde semi-feudal and semi-colonial relations have become the main obstacle in the development of a new and higher form of capitalist mode of production. In this situation the attempts at placing emphasis only on the productive forces (or, capital and technology, and that too foreign!) and keeping the old relations of production intact would not only be completely retrograde but have in practice, too, proved a failure. Thus the main policy of the revolution would be to confiscate the means of production that have been in the hands of the reactionary classes, mainly land which has been in the hands of the feudals and capital in the hands of the comprador and bureaucratic capitalist classes, and then to hand them over to the progressive forces (i.e. workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie)…However, because of the backward semi-feudal state and a very low level of development of productive forces in Nepal, the principal form of the new production relations would not be socialism at the outset but of a capitalistic type and only after going through a transitional stage that a socialist transformation would be carried out. In the New Democratic stage big and basic industries and financial companies would be under social ownership of the state, some of the larger means of production would be jointly owned by the state and the individual and in agriculture, the largest sector of the economy, there will be private ownership by the peasants and in small and medium industry and trade there will be ownership by the industrialists and traders. ”
o Independent and Self-reliant Development
“instead of the present extraverted and dependent development policy an inward-looking and self-reliant development policy relying upon its own natural resource, capital, labour, technology and market would be followed. This does not at all mean that there would be no economic ties with foreign countries or there would be no utilisation of modern science and technology as falsely alleged by the imperialists or their agents. There would be the policy of maintaining trade and other relations with all on the basis of equality, mutual benefit and national needs and of utilising modem technology to the extent possible.”
o Planned Development
“The other important policy would be to make a planned development of the economy through a scientific assessment of the available and potential resources of the country and physical and cultural needs of the society.”
o Balanced Development
“Balanced development in the country will be achieved by ending pre-capitalist and bureaucratic capitalist: monopoly in the economy, by granting national and regional autonomy to the oppressed nationalities and regions and geographical regions, and by pursuing the overall planned development strategy. The main strategy of balanced development would be based on treating industry as the leading sector and agriculture as the foundation in the development of the economy, and in the context of regional development, pursuing the policy of ‘urbanisation of the countryside’ and not the ‘ruralisation’ of the cities.”
o Revolutionary Land Reform
“The principal strategy of land reform would be to usher in capitalist relations by destroying completely feudal, semi-feudal and bureaucratic capitalist relations prevalent in agriculture. It would be primarily based on the policy of “land to the tiller”. In other words, the land of those feudals (and also guthis) who do not put their labour or capital on the land would be confiscated without compensation and distributed to the landless and poor peasants and the tillers would be made owners of the land. However, the land belonging to the middle or rich peasants (who may have hired their land out to others due to various reasons) will not be confiscated, but a ceiling to landownership, tenancy right and the rate of rent will be fixed and implemented. Together with this all forms of debt incurred by landless and poor peasants would be completely nullified and labour-services and other forms of payment forced upon them would be cancelled.”
Salient Excerpts
? Principal for debts amounting up to Rs. 30,000 and interest of debts up to Rs. 100,000 of borrowers effected directly by natural disasters and the conflict, small farmers below the poverty line and household entrepreneurs shall be waived (estimated total cost Rs. 9.18 billion) within the next 10-years. The budget allocates Rs. 400 million for the purpose this year.
? The government has waived out the interests and all kinds of penalties for those electricity bill payers who could not pay during the time of armed conflict.
? A High Level Scientific Land Reform Commission shall be formed for the abolition of feudal land ownership and production relations. A sum of Rs. 60 million shall be allocated to record land ownership and such records shall be published by mid-May 2009. Haliyas (ploughmen; bonded labor) shall be rehabilitated, with Rs. 150 million allocated.
• National Industrialization
“Main stress would be on harnessing the immense hydropower potential of the country through small hydro-electricity projects for the supply of necessary industrial energy and to ensure self-reliant, pollution-free and sustainable development. From the beginning, adequate attention would be paid to the primary and medium level technical education for the production of skilled labour and technical manpower which would be increasingly needed along with the process of industrialization. As per the market for raw materials and finished products, a policy of primarily relying on the internal market would be pursued. At one end, supply of raw materials would be ensured by enhancing production of medicinal herbs, animal husbandry, horticulture, cash crop production, processing of minerals, etc., taking full advantage of the geographical diversity and, at the other end, necessary market would be created for the industrial products by eliminating existing socio-economic inequalities and increasing the purchasing power of the general masses Thus the creation of a big market for the means of subsistence and means of production for the general masses instead of the current narrow market for the luxurious goods meant for only the limited upper class of people would accelerate the process of industrialization…”
Salient Excerpts
? Rs. 20 million shall be generated for herbal collection facilitation in conflict affected districts such as Jumla, Banke, and Salyan for self-employment. Rs. 10 million shall be allocated for the plant in the Karnali zone.
? State owned Agriculture Tools Factory of Birgunj and Hetauda Textile Mills will be brought back into operation in this Fiscal Year. Once these factories are operationalized, fixed percentage of shares will be sold to the laborers and, also to the public. In order to ensure markets for the textiles to be produced, Heatuda textile mills will be developed as a factory producing textiles to be used by Nepal police, Armed Police and the Nepalese Army.
? A High-Level Power Sector Development Committee shall be formed under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister to produce and utilize 10,000 MW of hydro power within 10 years for which 5.38% (Rs. 12.69 billion; 113% more than last year) of the budget shall be allocated this year. For rural electrification, Rs. 1.52 billion shall be allocated for the implementation of small hydro power projects as alternative energy programs. At dry ports in Biratnagar and Birgunj there shall be established a thermal plant on a public-private partnership initiative to establish uninterrupted power supply. Rs. 843.3 million shall be allocated for the construction of industrial corridor up to Pathliya-Birgunj Dry Port.
? The construction of Upper Tamakoshi- 456 MW, Upper Trishuli A-60 MW, Rahughat– 30 MW and Naumure 245 MW, totaling 791 MW, shall be started this year. Likewise, necessary works shall be initiated to start the construction of Upper Trishuli 3 B - 40 MW, Tamor-Mewa - 110 MW, Upper Seti - 127 MW, Dudhkoshi - 300 MW, Tamakoshi 2 and 3 - 500 MW, West Seti - 750 MW, totaling 1827 MW from both the government and private sectors. The legal provision of not requiring licenses for the production of up to 1 MW hydro power projects shall be extended up to 3 MW.Rs.
? 5.91 billion (69% up than the last year) shall be allocated for an “agricultural revolution.”
? A sum of Rs. 5.8 billion (42.6% up than the last year) shall be allocated for irrigation, where an additional 2,275 small irrigation projects shall be implemented
? Ten million labor days (to 100,000 people for 100-day) shall be earmarked in Rs 1.75 billion for small irrigation and drinking water projects, construction of agricultural roads and bridges through local User’s Groups.
? A total of 5.89% (Rs. 13.91%) shall be allocated for construction and maintenance of roads. Rs. 275.2 million shall be allocated for a Food for Work Program to construct a 125 km motorable road.
? Rs. 7.96 billion (66% up from the last year) for drinking water and sanitation. For self-employment opportunities to the youths, a Rs. 500 million “Youth Self-Employment Fund” shall be established to provide up to Rs 200,000 periodic loans.
• Regional Balance and Integrated Development
“Principal strategy for this would be: (1) to accelerate the pace of social development by making maximum use of the productive potentials of different geographical regions; (2) to make the economy self-reliant and to protect it from the danger of external interference and oppression through decentralisation in economic and geographical terms; (3) to orient the society towards more advanced and democratic stage by checking social and geographical polarisation; (4) to ensure sustainable development through interdependence among different social sectors and geographical regions; etc. For regional balanced and interdependent development, such programmes would be implemented as: controlling the polarisation between city and countryside; developing settlement system based on interdependence of big, medium and small towns and villages; developing interactive relations between Hill and Terai regions by ascertaining the division of labour between them; establishing production zones based upon integrated development of big and small industry and agriculture; enforcing national autonomy in oppressed nationality-dominated areas; implementing regional autonomy and local self-government in the oppressed and remote areas; etc.”
Salient Excerpts
? The ongoing construction of 1700 kms-long mid-hill Highway, connecting Hiyabhanjyang, Panchthar in eastern region to Jhulaghat, Baitadi in the western region shall be named Puspa Lal Lok Marga.
? Electric Railways from Mechi to Mahakali and Kathmandu to Pokhara shall be constructed with Rs. 150 million.
? Rs. 13.91 billion (77% up than the last year) shall be allocated for transport sector, which shall indeed mad the current fiscal year a “Year of Construction.” Trolley bus and cable car shall be developed as alternative means of transportation.
? Rs. 300 million shall be allocated to Gorakhapatra Corporation (State Newspaper) for inclusiveness; i.e. local dialects.
? For ILO Convention No. 169 and the international manifesto regarding the rights of tribal and indigenous people, the Nepal Government shall allocate Rs. 167.8 million to uplift and empower indigenous people, neglected, oppressed, dalit, muslim and backward communities.
? Rs.32.91 billion (14% of the total budget) is allocated in programs that work toward gender equality.
? Rs. 2.98 billion shall be allocated to the Poverty Alleviation Fund focusing on disadvantaged communities.
? The Act relating to the special economic zones will be enacted in this Fiscal Year. Necessary provisions are made in the accompanying Finance Act for providing customs and income tax exemption facilities in the special economic zones.
? For ILO Convention No. 169 and the international manifesto regarding the rights of tribal and indigenous people, the Nepal Government shall allocate Rs. 167.8 million to uplift and empower indigenous people, neglected, oppressed, dalit, muslim and backward communities.
? Social security shall be increased by Rs. 4.41 billion (440 % up from the last fiscal year). Monthly Rs.500 shall be allocated to people from endangered ethnicities, dalits, single woman, and Karnali zone residents above age 60 and to others above 70. Monthly Rs.1000 for fully handicapped/disabled and Rs. 300 for partially handicapped/disabled shall be provided.
? An additional 175 tele-centers in rural areas, schools and Post Offices shall be established with Rs.57.5 millions.
• The Process of Revolutionary Transformation
o Dialectical Process of Destruction and Creation
“It is necessary to destroy the old mode of production bit by bit starting from its weakest spots and to create the new mode of production systematically from the same place (i.e. a strategy of protracted People’s War). To put it in concrete terms, as the contradiction is the sharpest in the rural areas the process of destroying the old structure and creating a new one should commence from there.”
Salient Excerpts
? A sum of Rs. 5 million shall be allocated for the Jaljala area conservation and the same amount to be for the development of a model settling in Thawang – center of the people’s liberation campaign. To honor the political sacrifice, a sum of Rs. 248.5 million shall be allocated.
? Rs. 4.5 billion shall be estimated for reconstruction of public buildings, bridges, communication towers, and airports damaged at the time conflict for which Rs. 1.28 billion shall be allocated in this Fiscal Year.
o Transitional Capitalism and Continuous Revolution
“New Democratic system is basically a capitalist system. However, in the present era of imperialism and in a situation of intensely backward state of productive forces as in Nepal, it is impossible to develop the capitalist system in the old form and to make it stable. Specially it is not possible for the owners of small parcels of land and small capital to increase productivity by labouring individually and to protect themselves from the monopolistic assaults of the big capital. Hence it is only through gradual co-operativisation of agriculture and through state protection for industry, or by systematically moving ahead in the path of socialisation that the large number of small producers can preserve their existence and increase their productivity.”
Salient Excerpts
? About 4,000 VDCs shall receive Rs. 1.5 million to 3 million for the remaining 10-months of this fiscal year for development activities. Besides this, each VDC shall establish Consumer Cooperatives to provide up to Rs. 100,000 to laborers, dalit, the poor and students at a subsidized rate.
? Dalits, socially poor and disadvantaged ethnicities, women, homeless, freed Kamaiyas and landless shall be involve in Cooperatives through the slogan “Cooperatives in every village, food storage in every house” with the allocation of Rs. 85 million.
Other Salient Excerpts
• Salary of all classes of civil servants shall be increased by Rs. 2000 effective from September 17, 2008.
• The people who lost their lives in the course of the People’s War, People’s movement and Madhesi movement, shall be initially provided a lump-sump of Rs. 100,000 each as compensation and a scholarship shall be provided for education of the children of lost family members. Rs. 12 million shall be allocated for the development of ‘Living Together” (Sahajivan) settlements to the families of internally displaced due to the armed conflict. Rs. 1.62 billion shall be allocated for the purpose.
• For the Nepal Peace Trust Fund, Rs.2.5 billion shall be allocated. Similarly, necessary budget for the reintegration, rehabilitation and arms management of the Maoist people’s liberation army shall be started before mid-March 2009. The Nepal army shall be made democratic and inclusive for which the Government shall allocate 5.1 % (Rs. 12.03 million) of the total budget. The army shall be deployed for peace and security, development work, natural disaster relief, and other causes benefiting world peace.
• A code of conduct of the security forces shall be formulated and implemented before mid-December 2008. A local peace committee shall be constituted comprising security forces, local administration, political parties, and representatives of civil society for which Rs. 105 million shall be allocated.
• Under the Rural Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Sector Development Program, construction, income generating and livelihood training programs in 20 districts and drinking water projects in 38 districts shall be conducted with Rs. 820 million allocated for the purpose.
• To provide immediate relief to the starving, Rs. 1.22 billion shall be earmarked.
• A necessary preparation shall be made to declare 2011 as “Nepal Tourism Year” to revolutionize the tourism sector.
• A National Information Bank shall be established in the cost of Rs. 230 millions.
• A 0.5% registration fee shall be charged for buying and selling land within the municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley to clean the Bagmati, Dhobikhola and Bishnumati rivers.
• Rs. 2.21 billion (62% up than the last year) shall be used for housing and urban development.
• Rs. 38.98 billion (44.5% up from the last year) which comprises 16.52 % of the total budget shall be allocated for the education sector under the slogan of “basis of new Nepal, education as a universal fundamental right.” Additional 3500 Child Development Centers shall be established. Meals program for the 24000 Children of the Karnali Zone shall be continued. School education up to class 8 shall be made free and fees for class 9 to 10 shall be reduced gradually to make them free. Free education opportunities shall be provided to all public school students of Karnali Zone and such a privilege shall extend up to class 12 in the public school for all Dalit students across the nation. A National literacy campaign shall be launched with the slogan of ”Know letters, be civilized” that eradicates illiteracy within two years. A total of 35,000 youths shall get employment from this program with the cost of Rs. 1.4 billion. More than 91% of people shall have access to primary education in the current Fiscal Year.
• Rs. 15.58 billion (6.6% of the total budget), which exceeds last years allocation by 54%, shall be allocated for the health sector. A national program shall be launched for the treatment of uterus prolepses. Martyr Gangalal Heart Center shall provide a free of cost operation service to children below the age of 15, senior citizens above the age of 75, and endangered ethnic citizens. Free dialysis through the National Kidney Center shall be provided to endangered ethnic citizens and to senior citizens above 75 years of age.
Conclusion
The principal duties and responsibilities of the government are to draft and promulgate a new constitution to achieve a logical conclusion of the peace process, security, rule of law, less discrimination, employment and so forth. The budget has succeeded in including a wide circle of poor people along with unemployed youths for the first time in Nepal. It has ensured a plethora of opportunities for youth, but the NC has a reason to fear that the Maoists shall adopt the same tactics that the NC had in the past by providing such opportunities only to their cadres.Due to high expectations of the people, the Maoists-led government is compelled to allocate a populist budget despite huge challenges in generation of revenue, bridging of the budget deficit, procurement of foreign grants, anti-Maoists bureaucracy (polarized particularly with NC), lame diplomacy, and a “wait and see” donor policy. The budget is not clear on whether it intends to make the poor rich or make the rich richer or make the rich poor. This is due to the variety of backgrounds, objectives, and political doctrines of the political parties participating in the government.
Besides the Maoists, all political parties are in confusion as to there core values, missions and goals. Therefore, the Maoists have again taken on a great challenge, equal or greater to the 10-year armed struggle.
The budget has mentioned double-digit growth in the coming years. Double digit, rapid growth can only be possible if the country attempts to consolidate agricultural lands, promote tourism, welcome hydro-power investors and initiate cement industries. Yet the Maoists are currently concerned with distributing private and public lands to squatters. Nepal lacks infrastructure, services and manufacturing goods. About 2.25 million Nepali youth are working aboard, particularly in the form of unskilled labor. Remittances are only aggravating the trade deficient, particularly with India, which amounted to 196 billion this year. The vocational training that the government has projected is not sufficient. While the budget includes plans for cement plants, it has not approved a clear cut industrial security policy on how to attract both Chinese and Indian industrialists for these endeavors. Some of the critical comments on the budget from experts are given below:
“Budget seems populist, imbalanced, and politically hegemonied that would bear a clatter to the existing economic capacity of the country. It’s blown up like a ballon and has crossed the limit of financial indiscipline. Dr. Bhattarai’s over ambitious estimation of increasing Rs. 34 billion tax revenues and Rs. 31 billion (almost double the previous year’s estimation) foreign assistance is also censured of posing very serious side effects for the economy.”- Dr. Ram Saran Mahat, Former Finance Minister
“The budget is quite bold but with innate challenges; raising revenues to meet swelling expenditure, weak absorbing capacity for developing spending, and possible macroeconomic side effects. The government, it seems, is trying to lead the country towards the greater role of the state and many more ambitious programs, however the process and the success are not easy as it is said.”
- Dr. Jagdish Chandra Pokharel, former vice-chairman NPC
“The budget is the over ambitious and over-programing in nature. Finance minister, unlike their saying to the public, increased foreign assistance, which leads dependency. However the inclusion of cooperatives, infrastructure development programs’ implementation is quite appreciable. The budget have included nearly all sectors, but it won’t be sustainable and its can easily been predicted. The estimated revenue would not reach higher than Rs. 10-11 billion and at least Rs. 2-4 billion would be overdraft and thus rise inflation.”
- Dr. Shanker Sharma, former vice-chairman, NPC
The budget has included every sector which will bring short term benefit but the state’s mechanism can not expand the allotted budget. Expansion allocation by revenue is over-ambitious as Rs. 30-32 billion cannot be invested. The budget itself declared two month late and it will take a lengthy interval to reach to the assigned units. The new budget touched many such sectors which were not getting right notification earlier like health, employment and hydropower. This is an expansionary budget and it might result in inflation.
- Prof. Bishwambher Pyakurel
“With the vision of a radical transformation and the associates critical even to come together in minimum consensus sometime, the Maoists-led government presented an ambitious and people based budget of an ample legacy, popular programs, and over ambitious targets. The budget is expansionary one and constrained by limited fiscal capacity both in terms of revenue generation and implementation due to existing polarized bureaucratic mechanism and weak absorption capacity of local bodies. The commitments of the government and the forces of revitalizing and restructuring the operation mechanism can be instrumental and the success lies on this part.”
- Surendra Uprety, PhD student (youth)
The crux of the matter is that if this poor and marginalized affiliated and business promoted budget succeeds in their objectives, the political base of NC shall shrink again due to its previous policy of “elite protected and poor neglected” despite its claimed political doctrine of“ socialism.” If the Maoists-led government fails to introduce its own brand of socialism to Nepal, it may fail to achieve stability, as the Maoists party will be rejected as well, while the disadvantaged ethnicities, dalits, and madhesis would initiate communal violence owing to their desire for ethnic based, culture based and region based federal structure of government.
The greatest enemy of peace, justice, security, and development of Nepal is corruption. Neither has the government any policy to investigate financial irregularities of politicians, the bureaucracy, or security forces, nor has the judiciary any commitment for corruption eradication. When Biswo Kanti Mainali, Central President, Nepal Bar Association, said, “The work of judges is the license to corruption,” the full bench of the Supreme Court suspended him from attending court for six-months.Immediately after the budget speech, the market soared up by 20-30%, because the budget does not talk of controlling it. Indeed, while the budget attempts to protect and promote the poor, disadvantaged and vulnerable communities one way or another, it has tried to stop capital flight from Nepal and attract business communities, providing opportunities for joint investment through PPP policy. Yet, it lacks confidence and reassurance measures. Such communities have interests in continuing to hold a dominant role in politics.
Therefore, the budget espouses the policy of economic revolution on the one hand, and equally reassures the bourgeois on the other. Still, the budget opens the era of industrial capitalism in the name of socialism in Nepal, ousting the NC from its original stranglehold, as in the CA election. In fact, the budget aspires to what the great poet Laxmi Prasad Devkota said, “We should aim to fly high and touch the moon.”
==============Author: Bishnu Pathak PhD and Neil HorningAssisted by: Surendra Uprety (PhD student), Rushma Shakya, Rita Chaudhary, Ganga Puri and Meena Siwakoti
Filed under: nepali economy

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2 comments:

bedana said...

Rewriting news
Rewriting news means to write news again. If the first hand news writing is not good, there will be necessary to do rewrite it. Rewriting news makes story concise, better and well managed. All reporters have no capacity to write news properly. Specially, sub-editors rewrite news of juniors' reporters (cub reporters, stringer, and liners). They also rewrite news of seniors' reporters those who have no art of news writing. If information is enough in story and have poor writing, at that time sub-editors rewrite news. Sometime they request to reporters to re-write story.
Rewrite also seems necessary to bring unity in news present style. Sub editors also rewrite features. Rare case can find rewriting of article.
Sub editors always consider to the theme of news story. They have no authority to change the theme of story twisting and manipulating. In Nepal, many institutions don't care to the news rewriting.
It is easy to do rewrite news for news papers and magazines because they have time.

News papers Design and layout
To workout of create from or structure of newspaper is called newspaper design. In design of newspaper, it is necessary to decide size of paper, masthead, page number, column of news and article placing. It can decide of sport, economic, entertainment page in design. We have to care from top to bottom of newspaper. Creativity has importance role to do good design. If there is not proper design, it won't be possible to publish a perfect newspaper.
Layout
Arrangement of all the elements of printed materials is called layout. Layout is one part of design. We have chosen and decide of size of news, space, placing of advertisement, font size, kinds of headline, picture placing in layout. It is also necessary to choose color balance and place of matter.

Page making and lay out (B)
Page make up is the process of assembling a page, or the art of putting the news, advertisements, articles and other materials in the pages effectively and artistically. It is necessary assembling the newspaper in the composing room, art of putting set copy to make a page, artistically and effectively.
Lay out means the newspaper page designed in pencil for the guidance of the printer. Lay out is arrangement of illustrations, or a page plan.
Page making and lay out of the newspaper is as important as news. if a newspaper news, advertisements, pictures, cartoons and other materials are put in proper way that attracts the readers.
As the beautiful dress, good make up and jewelers make a woman pretty or eye catching, the lay out design and art of printing make the newspaper attractive. The tools of the page make up are news, articles features, pictures or photographs and advertisements. If we use these materials intelligently, the value of the newspaper rises.
A page full of news or full of advertisements cannot motivate the readers. To make the newspaper more attractive and readable, we should pay attention to the make up. Generally, readers see the upper part of the pages when they get the newspapers. In supper part, their attention lies in photo. In general principles, the readers see the right line of the even number and left line of page number 1.
All the pages of newspapers are equally important in terms of page make up and lay out. There are some suggestions for page make up and lay out.
1. Important news should be placed at the top of the pages.
2. Bold, Italic, small, big type should be use according to the importance of the story.
3. All the pages should be balanced.
4. Pictures are preferably put in the supper part of the pages.
5. The place for the cartoon should be fixed, generally in the first page.
6. If there is need of printing two or three photographs in the same page, then the large scale photos should be posted at the top and others in the middle pages.
7. It is better to keep the photo and related news in same place. If we put the photo in first page and news in second page, it is not taken as good.
8. The headline should be in small point in the box news.
9. There is need of balance between the title of the news and the photographs.
10. One Decker sub headline does not match with double or triple Decker head lines.
11. Diversification in headlines should be needed.
12. If the news is long, it is better to use sub title.
13. Advertisements shouldn't be come in the upper part of the first page.
14. Advertisements should be published in the editorial pages.

There is enough time to have the make up for the weekly newspapers but in the dailies time is limited. Therefore, make up editor should think proper size of type, sub editors are called the make up editors. They trim the stories written by the reporters, put the proper headlines according to the headlines, fix the page for the news according to the important. In newspapers, there are many sub editors fixed for the pages. Every page editors should have the quick idea about the placing of news when he she turns the eyes on it. Page make up is coordination of news, advertisements and photos, fixation of appropriate types points and columns.
In planning lay out, there are two possibilities. The symmetrical and the asymmetrical layout, which if well executed, could be very exacting. Such a lay out would include pictures, cut boxes, deep multiple column intros and flushed large type sub heads.

Theories of press
The political structure of country can influence or affect media. Studied about different political situations and affect of its. Fred S. Seibert, Theodore Peterson and Wilbur Schramm presented four theories of press in 1963. That is called four theory of press.
1 The Authoritarian Theory
The authoritarian theory evolved in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, spreading through Europe with the invention of press.
The press in such a society is viewed as an instrument for disseminating the state's policies and mouth piece of the ruling class. The state, after determine its objectives, uses the press as a means of obtaining those objectives.
In this theory, government controls mass media. There is not any permission to publish existing political rules and established authority.
The press also remains government' and private sectors. But there is one condition to support. There are various mechanisms to control media like licensing, taxation and libel and laws. There is forbidden criticism of political machinery and official in power.
Today, this system of the press exists in many countries in the world.
2 The libertarian theory
The libertarian theory developed in the eighteenth century. In this theory, it is believed that that press was the instrument to inform the people. There is less chance of control. People and individuals can publish or broadcast without any inferences from the state. Media man can enjoy in press freedom. In this system press have been run private sectors. Where there is democratic system, we can find adopting some norms of this theory.
3 The Communist Theory
This theory was developed from Russia, after the success of revolution in 1917. In this theory, Media become a part of the state. Consequently, Media reflected the national policy or party line. All media efforts have pointed towards achieving the aim of state. In this theory, it is believed that media have been run from the party line and directives of government. Media have no authority to criticize the policy of communist party. There is very less chance to open media from private sectors. Media become the propaganda tools for the benefit of state. Mostly, this theory exists in china till now.
4 The Social Responsibility Theory
This theory was developed by American society of Newspapers Editors (ASNE) in 1923. ASNE prepared code of conduct to make press more responsible towards society.
An extension of libertarianism, it urges the mass media to develop and enforce ethical practices in the public interest. Most, media system in Western Europe today near to the social responsibility theory. This theory urges that to flow news and views in media considering the social responsibility. This theory tries to stop anarchism in journalism.
5 The Development media theory
This theory was developed considering to the developing countries. In this theory, media should play vital role to support for the national development. It is also believed that media should motivate people to involvement in development activities. Media focus the activities of developments.
6 The Democratic Participant Theory
This theory was developed as the result of decentralization and inclusive movement. It is believed that people of all caste, region, and level have got opportunity to participant in policy making level. And, Media should focus their activities. In this system, media can be run by community. In the media, people can express their opinions through media. They feel that the media also belong to them and all political system run on the interest of them.


Development of Mass Media

History of Printing Press
Communication roots back to the era of the development of printing press because the potential of mass communication evolved with the invention of printing press. Obviously, only journalism started with the development of printing press. Japanese and Chinese used to engrave wood blocks in 6th-8th century. The wood-blocks used to be inked and impressed on paper to produce letters. Wangchieh printed a book in 868. It is believed that the Chinese developed the first movable type using small blocks. Pi-Sheng is said to have done this between 1041 and 1049. But these types of presses were unable to extend in the world because of unfamiliar language.

The Press was established in Europe in the 15th century. Johann Gutenberg set up his press in Mainz, Germany, in 1454-55 and published 300 copies of the Bible. Gutenberg did not want to give away the secrets of his achievement. So, the initial letters were left blank and later ornamented to give the impression that the work had been hand-written. Johann developed metal press so, he was known as the father of modern printing press.

The invention of Gutenberg spread to Paris and Venice (Italy) when people noticed that the Bibles were absolutely identical. In Venice, Nicolas made "Lower-Case" or small letters (so called because they were usually kept in a case below the one in which capital letters were stored). A few years later Aldus developed italic alphabets.

Printing had started in France, Switzerland and Italy before the end of the fifteenth century. Printing was set up to London by William Caxton. He learnt printing technology in German. Caxton established press Westminster of London in 1476. He published Bibles and other books in English language. Soon presses began to set up all over the world.

In1638, Jesse Glover sailed to America with the press. Unfortunately, he died on the ship. However, the press was set up in Massachusetts by Stephen Day and Matthew.

Gradually, press was established around the world. At the beginning, the major aim of establishing press was to spread religion. In India, press was set up at Gowa in 1550. In Nepal, Rana Prime Minister Junga Bahadur brought press from London in 1908 B.S. In the beginning, it was very difficult to publish many books and newspapers but nowadays, it's easy to publish large numbers of books and newspapers because of Modern technology like: offset press.

History of newspapers

Rome
Julius Ceaser published Acta Diurna in 59 BC. It covered the daily events of Roman government and attached on the different corners of towns. It is believed to be the first background step of journalism. This pamphlet was handwritten.

Newspaper in London
There was not freedom to publish books in London even in 16th century. In the 1530s, the English Monarch Henry VIII began requiring printers to be licensed (Black, Bryant, page,155). There was compulsion to take license to keep press and publish books. People had not authority to write and speak freely. John Milton wrote Areopagitica in 1644 and raised his voice for freedom of press (Ibid).

It was under Charles in Britain that a new era of journalism was started with the publication of the Oxford Gazette in 1665. Edited by Muddiman while the royal court was fleeing from the London plague, strictly speaking it was the first periodical to meet all the qualification of a true news paper. It was printed twice a week by royal authority. After 24 issues, the publication became the London Gazette (Ahuja/1998). It is believed that Oxford Gazette was the first newspaper of the world.

In 1695, the so called regulation of printing or licensing, act expired. Parliament denounced to renew this act. It became easy to publish books and papers.

The Daily Courant published on 11 March, 1702 became the first daily newspaper of the world. Then, it was found that many literalists published papers in London. Daniel Defoe published Review in 1704. First, it was published in a week and later published thrice in a week and covered news about politic and economic. At that same period, Jonathan Swift published many pamphlets which were satire to the rulers. It became popular in London.

Richard Steele started The Tatler in 1709 which was circulated among the coffee houses. Two years later, Steel and Joseph Addison launched the daily The Spectator which achieved a remarkable circulation on 4,000 copies daily. The papers followed the style of essay and called essay from journalism.

In 1712, Government introduced Stamp Tax Act in order to control the media. it was necessary to pay tax for publishing newspapers. The price of papers was increased because of this act.

There was no freedom to write news about parliament. Debate on British parliament was reported when Edward Cave started the publication of the 'Gentlemen's Magazine' from 1731. Cave began to write news about parliament by the help of Guthrie, who used to go to the meeting of parliament, by the help of parliament guard. In 1738, parliament challenged Cave not to publish such kind of news again. But he denied the direction of parliament and wrote news continuously.

Around the same period, Henry Shampon woodfull published Weekly Advertiser. He also wrote about parliament on his popular column Letter to Junious. Parliament decided to punish him because he had fiercely criticized the parliament. He became successful to escape from this charge because Court changed this decision.

John Wilkes published North Briton. He also wrote news criticizing the parliament. Once, he published news about George III. He was arrested including his 48 friends on the charge of defamation. Later, he got cleanness from court and achieved compensation from state. Popular newspapers London post also wrote news criticizing the parliament.

In 1772 John Bell started the Morning post. In 1791 W.S Bourne started the Observer. On January 1, 1785 John Water lunched the Daily Universal Register. Later the title was changed into The Times.

Industrial Revolution started in London on the beginning 19th century. Cylinder press, which were driven from steam power, and iron press was introduced in London. It helped to publish large number of newspapers in short time. The extension of railway service also helped to grow the area of distributing newspapers.


Nepal
Printing press in Nepal
The history of mass media in Nepal is not old. Prior to 104-year Rana regime, which began in 1846 B.S, there was no concept of mass media. In this regard the Nepali society seemed to be in a state of isolation. The first printing press was brought in country 400 years after the Gutenberg's press spread in Europe and other parts of the globe. Junga Bahadur Rana, the first Rana prime minister brought a printing press in 1851(1908B.S) on his return from a visit to England. This was called 'Giddhe press' . This is not known where this press was set up. A printing press called "Manoranjan press" was set up in the country before 1862(1919B.S) in Thahity. According to the cover page advertisement of the book "Moksha siddhi", this press had already published many books. This press is said to have published Muluki Ain the first (civil code) drafted in 1853 (1910 B.S) . It took three years to complete the task. In about 1871(1928 B.S) "Narayanhiti Chhapakhana" was established by Bir Shumsher whereas in the year 1883(1940 BS) Dan Raj Lamichhane set up 'Chandra prabha press' in Naxal, Kathmandu. In about 1892(1949B.S) Basantapur "Jangghi Litho press" was operated.

In 1950 B.S, "Pashupat press" was set by Mitikrishna Company in Thahiti. It helped to establish professional printing press in Nepal. It is said that, Sudhha Sagar, first nepali press was published from this press. In 1969 B.S, Press established in Nepal which is run by electricity. In 1984B.S, Offset press was brought in Nepal to publish Grkhapatra. In 2021B.S, Janak Shikha Samagri Kendra brought four colour printing presses in Nepal. There were many letter presses in Nepal, after introducing of offset press they became out dated. It is rarely uses in country. There are around three hundred offset presses in Nepal, which have been publishing books, newspapers, pamphlets etc. It becomes easy for printing books, magazines and newspapers in Nepal. It is not necessary to go to foreign countries for quality printing.

The leadership of Youth poet Motiram Bhatta "Gorkha Bharat Jeewan" was published from Banaras of India in (1943 Bs). It was the first paper published in Nepali language.


History of newspapers in Nepal
The history of mass media in Nepal can be looked at in five distinct phases.

1) (1955 B.S- 2007 B.S)
The first papers 'Sudha Sagar' was published from Kathmandu in1955 B.S . It is said that 'Sudha sagar' was published from Pashupat Press. It was a magazine. The aim of this paper was to promote Nepali literature. However, not a single copy of the monthly is seen till date.
The first Nepali newspaper 'Gorkhapatra' was started on 24, (1958 Bs). 'Gorkhapatra' was the first- weekly paper. Though, 'Sudha Sagar' was started nearly three years before 'Gorkhapatra'. The history of Nepali journalism really started with the publication of the 'Gorkhapatra'. It is not clear who was the editor of 'Gorkhapatra'. But it is said that Naradev Moti Krishna Sharma and Kapildev Shama had actively participated in publishing of this paper. This paper was published on the interest of Rana Prime Minister Dev Shamsher . 'Gorkhapatra' had played important role to spread the light of education at the time when education for common was not allowed.
Obviously, 'Gorkhapatra' must have faced a difficult situation. 'Gorkhapatra' served the purpose and the interest of the Rana regime. After 'Gorkhapatra' a number newspapers came into existence at home and aboard (Specially, India).

In the same year 1958 BS 'Gorkhe khabar kagaj' was started from Darjeeling. Almost a year after the launching of 'Gorkhapatra' 'Upanyas Tarangini' monthly was started in 1958 B.S from Banaras 'Sundari' monthly (1963 B.S) from Banaras, 'Chandra' monthly (1971B.S) from Banaras, 'Gorkhali' weekly (1972 B.S) and 'Rajbhakti' weekly (1983 B.S) from Banaras following it. On the other hand, 'Chandrika' monthly (1974 B.S) from Kharsang, 'Gorkha Sansar' weekly (1983 B.S) from Deheradun, 'Tourn Gorkha' weekly (1985 B.S) Deheradun, and 'Nepali Sahitya sammelan' (1989 B.S) were started from, Darjeeling.
Sardha monthly was lunched in 1991 B.S and Udhyog in 1992B.S from Kathmandu. Udhyog was the first fortnightly papers published from Nepal.
'Udaya' (monthly 1993 BS, from Banaras) 'Gorkha' (weekly 2001 BS, Calcutta) 'Yugbani' (weekly,2004 BS, Banaras) also etc were published from different part of India .
'Nepal Pukar' (2005B.S) published from calcutta and 'Yugbani' were directly helping the democratic movement in Nepal. However, newspapers were facing hard times because of the lack of readers, economic support.



Some features of this period
· Magazine, fortnightly and weekly newspaper began to publish from Nepal.
· Many newspapers published from India. Some of them supported to the democratic movement of country and rest concentrated on literature.
· The mouth piece of government Gorkhapatra weekly began to publish thrice in a week.
· There was not press freedom.
· No environment for publishing newspapers from private sectors because of autocratic Rana's regime.
· There was not facility of modern technology.
· People had no consciousness about media.
· Low literacy rate also became obstacle to increase circulation of newspapers.
· Rana ruler banned to pluralism

Similarly, Hridya Chandra Singh pradhan started (editors) weekly vernacular 'Jagaran' in 2007, falgun 4 from Katmandu. This was the firstly weekly newspapers which gave impartial treatment to all types of news. 'Jagaran', which was started at a time when the Rana rule was on the verge of collapse and the democratic system was going to be established, played a very important role to create awareness among the mass. The objective of the 'Jagaran' was to create awareness by criticizing the political, economic and social system. However, this paper could not survive long because of the bad financial condition and closed after 36th issue.

2) 1950 to 1960 A.D (2007 to 2017 B.S)
The first Nepali Daily 'Awaj' was started in 2007; falgun 8 B.S. Siddhi Charen Shrestha was the editor of this daily. The publication of this daily increased a reading habit among Nepali people, especially, the people of Katmandu. However, this paper folded up because of economic and other factors.

Though the publication of newspapers started in Nepali in the early 19005, actual journalism started only after 2007 B.S revolution. The 'Gorkhapatra' before 2008 B.S was only the mouth piece of Rana regime. Before 2008 B.S 'Gorkhapatra' published government notices, Acts and Regulations enforced by the government and arrival and departure to and from India of the Rana family members would get top priority. And local news had a small coverage in 'Gorkhapatra'. With the dawn of democracy, people for the first- time enjoyed freedom of speech and press.
Some features of this period
· Democracy established in Nepal and became good environment for press
· Daily newspapers began to publish not only in Nepali but also in different languages.
· Increased number of publishing dailies, weeklies and fortnightlies and monthlies newspaper.
· Press Commission was formed to study about the condition of Nepalese media and possibilities of Nepali media.
· Journalists established Journalist Association
· News Agency was also established from private sector
· Media faced economic crisis. Many papers were closed due to lack of money.
· Being press freedom, Local administration tried to control over media by threatening.
· Media were affected because of political instability in nation.

After the closure of 'Aawaj', 'Samaj,' daily was started in 2011B.S Bhadra 4, in the editorship of pashupati Dev pandey. This daily had to struggle hard to publish impartial news. 'Hal Khabar' daily was started in Kartik 28, 2013 B.S . This paper increased people's interest in newspaper by criticizing the government bad policies. People got entertainment from the newspapers. Newspapers started publishing issues of public interest.

Meanwhile, newspapers in Nepali, Newari and English language were started. 'Dainik' Samachar 'Satyagraha,' 'Nepal Samachar' 'Samaya' Bhugalpark',' Goreto', 'Dainik Nepal', 'Janamat', ' Matribhumi',' Motherland', 'Commoner', ' Everest News', and Naya Samaj', contributed to the development of journalism in Nepal. Samikshya weekly (2017, Baisak 30) played significant role, for the development of journalism of Nepal.

In between (1950 BS) to 1960 (2017 B.S) many newspapers were started and folded up. On the one hand, journalists were committed to promote healthy and competitive journalism, on the other, newspapers had to be folded up because of financial constraints and lack of readers.

3) 1960 to1990 A.D (2017 to 2046 B.S)
The newspapers published after 1960(2017 B.S) included interesting materials and set new tradition in newspaper reading. Newspapers also paid attention to language and used satirical sketches boldly. However, newspapers were closed due to strict laws and opened again after court verdicts time and again. King Mahendra's takeover in 1960(2017) and new party less constitution of 1962 (1019 B.S) proved detrimental for the development of healthy journalism in the country. During 30 years of direct royal rule the control over media grew. But, together with weeklies and other news periodicals, the number of daily newspapers increased substantially. The official newspaper 'Gorkhapatra' transformed into a bi-weekly in 2000 and thrice a week in 2003 and became daily newspaper from February 1961 (2017 falgun 17).

The newspapers that went against party less panchayat goverment were closely scrutinized and punished. There was no other broadcast media except Radio Nepal. The local administration would call and hold journalists who went against. Although there was remarkable increase in the number of dailies and weeklies in a decade's period between 1960 to 1980, the newspapers were not allowed to criticize panchayat system and support democracy.
Some features of this period
· Democracy had been collapsed and started autocratic Panchayat Regime.
· There was not press freedom and government tried to control over media. Government canceled registration of some newspapers.
· Many newspapers were closed because of bad political situation of nation.
· Newspapers were divided into two groups: one was supporter of government and other was anti government.
· Government established News Agency Rastriya Samachar Samiti (RSS) .
· Gorgkapatra weekly transformed into daily and another government owned English daily newspaper The Rising Nepal began to publish.
· Many weeklies papers had vital role to create public opinion about democratic movement of country.
· There was not good environment for investment in press.


A decade between 1979 to 1989 (2036-2046) remained a bit liberal for mass media. Supported of both the groups Panchyat freely campaigned during the referendum of 1980 (2036/037BS). The date for referendum was announced by the king a year ago (i.e 1979). Freedom of speech and expression allowed at that time increased newspapers role. The commission formed by the government to study about problem in Nepali press had recommended and showed solutions including providing some facilities to the press.

After the victory of improved panchyat in the referendum, publicity of democracy was banned again. The authority started to arrest journalists again on the basis of publishing materials contrary to existing laws. Registrations of newspapers were cancelled and action was taken against the press. There was several examples court reversing government's decisions. The newspapers started in the 2007 BS and and the 2017 BS bore a distinct mark of contemporary printing technology and the country's pioneer journalists worked hard to give the press an independent and institutionalized look. But numerical growth and technological advancement alone could not help lay a story foundation for free press.

Low literacy rate and lack of capital were among the visible obstacles to the development of an assertive media environment ( M.N/2000, 14).

During the period of direct royal regime (2010 to 2047 BS) even state-owned news organizations were placed under tight official control. Scores of journalists faced legal actions for having published 'objectionable materials'. The conditions of dallies was pathetic, barring the two official newspapers. They were in tabloid size. The supporters of the Royal rule were assisted and critics were routinely followed constantly to harass ounded. During Paychyat Regime, Government banned Bimarsha, janajoyati, Mahima, ugdhara, Garjann, Nepal Bani, Chhalfal, Dristri time and again charging violating law and directives of Government.

Nepalese Press after 2046 Bs or era after Restoration of Democracy in 1990
Restoration of democracy in Nepal 2046 BS was a landmark development creating a favorable environment for Nepalese press to grow. Journalists then were free to write news and views without interferences from the government. The constitution of 2047 has guaranteed press and publication right under its Article 13. According to this provision no news item, article or any other reading material shall be censored, no press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or other reading materials and the registration of a newspaper or periodical shall not be canceled merely for publishing any news item, article or other reading material. It was the first time, the right of press was guaranteed in the Constitution in the history of Nepal. The provision made the press powerful than ever before. It created a conducive environment for investment in media and encouraged many young people to enter journalism.

Despite the constitutional provisions of press freedom, there are some limitations of the press. There is one clause in the Constitution. According to this clause nothing shall prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.

Before 2046, many journalists had been involved in Mission Journalism. They had no priority to sell large-scale newspapers and earn money and did journalism on the support of democratic movement. But, after 2046, it was easy to make huge investment because of financial security and journalist got opportunity to develop professionalism.

Communication policy of 2049 has recognized the Media as an industry. Being democratic political system and good environment for investment in media, people began to publish broadsheet daily newspapers. The Kantipur (Nepalese language) and The Katmandu post (English Language) Daily began to publish in 2049. Up on the launching of these two dailies has been considered as the milestone in Nepalese journalism. It is said that professionalism entered Nepalese Media with the launching of these two newspapers.

During the BS 50's, Nepalsamachar Patra, Shree Sagarmata, Everest Herald (english language), Space Time, Himalay Times, Lokpatra, Rajdhani, The Himalayan Times (English) daily and Annapurna Post were published. They were published not only in black and white but also in multi color. Many professional journalists involved in these media. Around half a dozen evening daily published from Katmandu. During the same decade, several daily newspapers launched from Pokhara, Butwal, Dhahran, Birgunga, nepalgung etc.

Patrika Satdine (weekly), Nepal (at first published in fortnightly then began to publish in a weekly, Himal (fortnightly) began to publish with multi color. Many other newspapers published at that period. Not only quantity of newspapers and journalists, but also quality of contents increased. Newspapers had got advertisements. Kantipur publication published its edition from Biratnagar and Bharatpur and Nepal Samachapatra published its versions from Biratnagar. A large number of Nepalese people became the regular readers of these newspapers.

There was rapid increase of newspapers and journalists during the decade it was the good symbol for Nepalese journalism. According to report of Press Council Nepal 2061, around five hundred newspapers publish regularly from all over the nation.

Around four dozens FM Radio stations were opened in the different part of Nepal. They became popular among people. People have got opportunity to get quick national and international news.

But, there were other negative aspects in Nepalese journalism. Some publication stopped their papers due to lack of money and co-ordination among publishers. Patrica Satdine, lokpatra, Space-time, etc., were closed because of financial crisis. Shree Sagarmatha and Everest Herald, Naya sadak were closed because of conflict among investors.

In this period, Maoist attacked many journalists. When journalist wrote only positive news, Maoist welcomed them. When they criticized of Maoist, they got threatened, challenges and physical attack by Maoist. State also suppressed many journalists on the name of Maoist problem. Government seized press matters and computers defying the constitutional provision.


Government declared state of emergency in 11 Mansir 2058 BS and declared Maoist the terrorist. Government grasped fundamental right of constitution. Ministry of information and communication issued order categorizing dos and dons. Security forces also issued directives to media and also requested not to publish security and Maoist news without verifying from army headquarters. Information ministry requested media not to publish any news, which helps to boost the morality of Maoist and said to publish news against Maoist.

Afterwards journalists (especially those working near the Maoist ideology, like Janadesh, Dishabod, Janadisha, Janaawan etc) were arrested. And other journalists, who had written news neglecting order of the government and security forces, were also arrested. During the period of emergency, more than one hundreds were arrested from different part of nation. Nearly one dozen journalists lost their lives because of the conflict. More than one dozen newspapers had been closed because of government obstacles. This emergency became the set back to the Nepalese journalism sectors. It also discouraged the new investment in Media.

18 Ashoj of 2058 also came as another jolt for Nepalese media. Lack of political stability and debate of democracy also harmed media sector. Despite bad condition, Channel Nepal, Kantipur Television, Image channel and NTV 2 Metro were launched. They have been popular television channels till.


The 19 magh 2061, His Majesty the King had dismissed parties' government and became executive chief of the country. Emergency was declared and suspended many fundamental rights. Arm forces presented in media houses and censored publication matters. Government issued order what to publish and what not to publish. Government banned to broadcast news from FM. Government restricted news which have been dealt in against king move. Local administrations asked clarification with Budhabar, Deshantar, Hank and blocked support from government. Many newspapers were closed temporarily because of emergence. Many newspapers and journalists took part in struggle demanding press freedom. Journalists of Katmandu and outside of valley have been suffered from government. They are suffered both mentally and physically.

Government launched media ordinance 2062. There are differing voices about the ordinance. Those persons who supports royal move, claim that this ordinance was necessary to discipline media. On the contrary, those standing against the royal move are still in the road protesting the document.

FM radio began to broadcast news again because of Supreme Court verdict.


Still many media houses and journalists feel insecure. There is not good environment for investment. There are many houses, which have been suffering due to lack of financial problem. There is no complete press freedom in the country. Till now Nepalese media are under the pressure of the Maoist and the government. There are many challenges to journalists to perform their duties in an independent manner. It is very hard to say there is good environment for press until the conflict is settled amicably.

bedana said...

Press Freedom and Fundamental Rights Related Provisions in Constitution of the
Kingdom of Nepal 1990(2047)

PART 3

Press Freedom

Freedom of the press is the major building block in democracy. Freedom of expression and freedom of the press are the major pillars of a democratic society, providing continued life blood for democracy. Freedom of the press means freedom from despotic control by the government. Press freedom is the right to get information, right to print or broadcast without prior restraint and the rights to print or broadcast without fear, threat or duress. Press Freedom is essential for the media to perform its essential functions in a democratic society. The media must be free from all influences that induce bias, misreporting and distortion of facts. Freedom of expression is the fundamental condition for the exercise of every other form of freedom. Its presence is the warranty that the weight of the majority will not be translated into an oppression of minorities The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990 in its chapter under Fundamental Rights deals with the Rights to Press and Publication. According to Articles 13, no news item, articles or any other reading materials shall be censored. Article 13 also adds that no Press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or any reading materials.
act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.
(2) No press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or other reading material.
(3) The registration of a newspaper or periodical shall not be canceled merely for publishing any news item, article or other reading material.


Limitations on Freedom of the press
Freedom o the press however is no absolute. Press is a great power but as the flooded river sweeps the grains in the same way uncontrolled pen invites destruction rather than creation. Therefore, there needs certain limitation of freedom. Freedom provides responsibility to press, without responsibility is not press. Without a lively sense of responsibility a free press may readily become a powerful instrument of injustice. Freedom dose not mean defamation of an individual or law, contempt of court, act of libel or involvement on any illegal activities. Liberty can not mean license to achieve authoritarian power. Press freedom should be used in the public interest in the democratic society press has no right to make the public corrupted, to encourage the crime to break the peace to threat the accountable government, to harm individual etc.
All countries have made some reasonable restrictions in freedom of press. The principle has long been established that the pres may not be used in circumstances that would create a clear and present danger of bringing about serous consequences to some significant interest that government has right or duty protect. Similarly another important limit on the free pres is the law of libel, involving the defamation of a person, false accusation, or exposure of someone to hatred ridicule or pecuniary loss.

The constitution of kingdom of Nepal 2047 has also made some reasonable restrictions. In article 13 there can find obligation about press freedom are: on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.

To protect other rights is also the duty of press. Protection of fame, protection of privacy, protection secrecy, protection of National security, protection public health, protection of public morale, protection of public pace and good governance are the basis of pre censorship of the press freedom.

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS which mention on the present constitution

11. Right to Equality:
(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion (dharma), race (varya), sex (li_ga), caste (jât), tribe (jâti) or ideological conviction (vaicârik) or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, or ideological conviction or any of these.
Provided that special provisions may be made by law for the protection and advancement of the interests of women, children, the aged or those who are physically or mentally incapacitated or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or educationally backward.
(4) No person shall, on the basis of caste, be discriminated against as untouchable, be denied access to any public place, or be deprived of the use of public utilities. Any contravention of this provision shall be punishable by law.
(5) No discrimination in regard to remuneration shall be made between men and women for the same work.
12. Right to Freedom:
(1) No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save in accordance with law, and no law shall be made which provides for capital punishment.
(2) All citizens shall have the following freedoms:
(a) freedom of opinion and expression;
(b) freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(c) freedom to form unions and associations;
(d) freedom to move throughout the Kingdom and reside in any part thereof; and
(e) freedom to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, industry, or trade.
Provided that -
(1) nothing in sub-clause (a) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities, or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act which may be contrary to decent public behaviour or morality;
(2) nothing in sub-clause (b) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty, integrity or law and order situation of the Kingdom of Nepal;
(3) nothing in sub-clause (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities, which may instigate violence, or which may be contrary to public morality;
(4) nothing in sub-clause (d) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws which are in the interest of the general public, or which are made to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities;
(5) nothing in sub-clause (e) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose restriction on any act which may be contrary to public health or morality, to confer on the State the exclusive right to undertake specified industries, businesses or services; or to impose any condition or qualification for carrying on any industry, trade, profession or occupation.
13. Press and Publication Right:
(1) No news item, article or any other reading material shall be censored.
Provided that nothing shall prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.
(2) No press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or other reading material.
(3) The registration of a newspaper or periodical shall not be canceled merely for publishing any news item, article or other reading material.
14. Right Regarding Criminal Justice:
(1) No person shall be punished for an act which was not punishable by law when the act was committed, nor shall any person be subjected to a punishment greater than that prescribed by the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence.
(2) No person shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence in a court of law more than once.
(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
(4) No person who is detained during investigation or for trial or for any other reason shall be subjected to physical or mental torture, nor shall be given any cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Any person so treated shall be compensated in a manner as determined by law.
(5) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest, nor shall be denied the right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice.
Explanation: For the purpose of this clause, the words "legal practitioner" shall mean any person who is authorized by law to represent any person in any court.
(6) Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before a judicial authority within a period of twenty-four hours after such arrest, excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to such authority, and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period except on the order of such authority.
(7) Nothing in clauses (5) and (6) shall apply to a citizen of an enemy state, and nothing in clause (6) shall apply to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.
15. Right against Preventive Detention:
(1) No person shall be held under preventive detention unless there is a sufficient ground of existence of an immediate threat to the sovereignty, integrity or law and order situation of the Kingdom of Nepal.
(2) Any person held under preventive detention shall, if his detention was contrary to law or in bad faith, have the right to be compensated in a manner as prescribed by law.
16. Right to Information:
Every citizen shall have the right to demand and receive information on any matter of public importance;
Provided that nothing in this Article shall compel any person to provide information on any matter about which secrecy is to be maintained by law.
17. Right to Property:
(1) All citizens shall, subject to the existing laws, have the right to acquire, own, sell and otherwise dispose of, property.
(2) The State shall not, except in the public interest, requisition, acquire or create any encumbrance on, the property of any person.
(3) The basis of compensation and procedure for giving compensation for any property requisitioned, acquired or encumbered by the State for in the public interest, shall be as prescribed by law.
18. Cultural and Educational Right:
(1) Each community residing within the Kingdom of Nepal shall have the right to preserve and promote its language, script and culture.
(2) Each community shall have the right to operate schools up to the primary level in its own mother tongue for imparting education to its children.
19. Right to Religion:
(1) Every person shall have the freedom to profess and practise his own religion as handed down to him from ancient times having due regard to traditional practices;
provided that no person shall be entitled to convert another person from one religion to another.[3]
(2) Every religious denomination shall have the right to maintain its independent existence and for this purpose to manage and protect its religious places and trusts.
20. Right against Exploitation:
(1) Traffic in human beings, slavery, serfdom or forced labour in any form is prohibited. Any contravention of this provision shall be punishable by law;
Provided that nothing herein shall be a bar to providing by law for compulsory service for public purposes.
(2) No minor shall be employed in work in any factory or mine, or be engaged in any other hazardous work.
21. Right against Exile:
No citizen shall be exiled.
22. Right to Privacy:
Except as provided by law, the privacy of the person, house, property, document, correspondence or information of anyone is inviolable.
23. Right to Constitutional Remedy:
The right to proceed in the manner set forth in Article 88 for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed.

General concept of human rights
Human rights mean the fundamental right of the every member of the human community. Human right means the guaranteed rights for religion, language, gender, ethnicity, origin, nationality,, economic, social national frontier etc. Obtaining or using every right without any discrimination is human rights.
The universal declaration of human rights 1948 has defined the human rights thus Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people.
It means every individual should use his\ her freedom of expression and religion and they should be free from any threats and lack of different basic necessities.
National human right commission has defined human rights as the rights of individual related to life, freedom, equality and dignity that are provided by the constitution and other existing laws. The commission has also said that it also concerns with the rights provided by the international laws and convention since Nepal is the member countries of these all conventions.

The concept of human rights came with the establishment of United Nations in 1945. United Nations (UN), international organization of countries created to promote world peace and cooperation. The UN was founded after world war ended in 1945 its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relation between countries, promote cooperation in solving the worlds problems and encourage respect for human rights.
Realizing the growing sense of insecurity, the universal declaration of Human right adopted by the United Nations UN in 1948. It gave human right a new international legal status. Building on precedents set by the British Magna Carata (1215) the French declaration of the rights of man (1789) and the United States Bill of rights (1791) the universal declaration also reflected the events of the 1930 s and 1940s particularly the Nazi Holocaust. Reporter of Nazi atrocities shocked people around the world and gave momentum to an effort to codify human rights in international law.
According to the preamble UN declaration, human rights means recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation freedom justice and peace in the world. Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort to rebellion against tyranny and oppression that human rights should be protected by the rule of law.
It is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations. The peoples of the United nation have in the charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human right, in the dignity and worth of the human person the in the equal right of mean and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. Whereas member states have pledged themselves to achieve, in co operation with the United nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Similarly a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge.
The Vienna conference of United Nations on human rights in 1993 has insisted that the human rights are universal and common. All the nations of the world have honored the Vienna declarations as member of United Nations.

But some rights have been accepted as basic human rights despite all the right are treated as equally important. These basic human rights are as follows

1. Right to live-Every person shall have the right to personal freedom and self security. The article 3 of UN declaration on human rights 1948 has protected the right to live as the most important and basic right. Every nation of democratic norms and values has guaranteed the right to live in its constitution
2. Right to shelter - Appropriate residence and necessary services are regarded as basic human rights. The respective governments should have the responsibility to provide home and other basic needs to the people can not use other rights properly.
3. Right to earn live - Every person shall have the right to earn his life. Right to work right to join government services are the basic rights of the people.
4. Right to nutrition and health - Right to health and food are regarded as human rights since it has great important in human lives. Every person should have right to export and import the essential foods and the government's should be provided them needy food.
5. Right to Education - Everybody has the right to education. Education is remained as focus of economic, social and cultural development and rights. Moreover, the secondary education should be provided freely to the citizens.
6. Right to religion - Every citizen shall have the right to choose the religion according to his desire.
7. Right to vote or right to be candidate - Every person shall have right to vote to representatives and to be the candidate for the election.
8. Right to information - Every citizen shall have the right to know the public issues. Every government should provide the states careen lives information to them.
9. Right to economy - Every citizen shall have the right to earn the money. Economy is closely tied up with the rights to live.
10 Constitutional remedy
11 Right To privacy

Development of human rights in Nepal
Nepal has a very short history of human rights development because it was most of the time ruled by autocracy where human right was no allowed. The 104 years Rana regime and then 30 years panchayati system were totally autocratic. At that time people right to protest against the ruler or ruling system was totally banned. That why there was not a chance of honoring human rights at that time. Though, occasional discussions were held since the establishment of United Nations had raised this question of human dignity.
The real honor of Nepal to human right introduced with the promulgation of the constitution 2047 that was brought with the popular movement of 2046. The constitution has guaranteed the right of the Nepal citizens. The constitution is called among the best south Asia in terms of providing right to the pole. Later in 2053 B.S National human rights commission was established to look after the issues of human rights violated by state and other concern actors. Even in parliament, there is human rights and foreign affairs committee that also draws attention of the concern actors on violation of basic rights of the citizens.
Moreover, there are laws passed by constitution which are subordinate to the constitution and other national and international conventions. For example there is children act, labor act, trade union act etc that are related with the right of them and with the human rights in wholesome.

Democracy and Press Freedom
§ Bhuwan KC

No doubt, democracy and press freedom are two wheels of a chariot. One isn't complete without the other. Press can stay alive in the political system of authoritarian and communism but press freedom is not possible without democracy.

US Agency for International Development (USAID ) report entitled the role of media in democracy: a strategic approach mentioned that media activities should not be viewed in isolation from other areas of democracy.

In the context of Nepal, there is no democracy since the Royal Proclamation. In February 1, 2005, King Gyanendra held the executive power himself and became chief of state by dismissing the government led by the leaders of political parties . The word 'democracy' is mentioned many times in the royal address, but, in fact, there is no democracy in the nation. John Hospers, professor of Department of Philosophy at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles said that every system of government wants to call itself a democracy, even if it is actually a dictatorship. Believing autocracy, the king is trying to apply the opinion of Hospers.

Former president of America Abraham Lincoln defined the democracy as government of the people, for the people and by the people. This definition is the most popular. But in Nepal, there is nothing to suit with this definition. The King has been tried to establish democracy as of the king, for the king and by the king. He mentions the 'people' time and again but rules without addressing the demands of majority of the people.

To be democracy in a nation, there should be certain norms and values. There must be rulers who have been elected by majority of people from a fair election. Samuel P Huntington, political analyst, said that open, independent and fair election were the compulsory elements of democracy. Government should have responsible for rule of law, transparency, press freedom and human rights. It is believed that democracy is the majority's rule and policy is decided by the preference to them. However, there are not any of these basic norms in our nation during the period of a year.

There is not any provision in the present constitution, for the King to be executive chief of state. Even though, he has held the power of state, nominated two vice-chairman and ministers to those who have no public mandate.

There is no responsibility and transparency in the government. Many persons of the cabinet have been involved in nepotism to the king instead of filling the desire of people. After the royal takeover, there have been so many events of security lapses, price hikes, and ignorance to problems of people, corruption and criminal activities. People have no option to follow even if the rulers are neglecting their voices. The people need to know what the government is doing. Unfortunately, many have no knowledge of the activities of government.

The king and his supporters claimed that the nation has been ruled by article 127 of present constitution. This is also baseless logic. Actually, the king and his supporters misinterpreted the provision and describe it according to their interest. The provision gives the authority to the King to solve the crisis, if any. But there is not any progress about solving the crisis of nation. On the contrary, the crisis of nation is growing. The tremendous political crisis shows that the king has failed to end the crisis of the nation.

It is clear that the king's Feb 1 move wasn't a result of good intention. At the time, on the one hand, he gave a lecture of multiparty democracy and on the other hand ordered the security mechanism to arrest the leaders of democratic parties.

Independent media faced similar problem. The king portrayed independent media as the means of increasing awareness of democracy, but sent security forces to the media houses. Soon after the royal takeover, government declared of state of emergency suspending the fundamental rights of people.

Independent media became victimized. Army censored media content, seized some newspapers from press, and some newspapers were closed in out of valley because of local administration interference. Journalists have been arrested and intimidated by the security forces and local administration.

Government ordered electronic media not to broadcast matters against Royal Takeover and ordered print media not to publish any news, article and interviews which were against the intention of King's step for six months.

Government continued rigid attitudes even after the end of state of emergency. Security forces compelled media for self-censorship, government launched new media ordinance, attacked on radio stations, introduced one door advertisement policy and was able to form parallel organization of Federation of Nepalese Journalist (FNJ).

During last decade, the insurgent Maoists has also attacked press repeatedly. Terry Davis, Secretary General of the Council of Europe said that media freedom is one of the main pillars of a democratic state, and any attack on this freedom it is an attack on democracy itself.

The government claimed that they want to systematize media. But reality is different. Actually they want to control media to suppress people's voices.

Journalists have fought against the royal takeover from the very beginning. They have been trying to protect press freedom through court, media and even demanding it on street. FNJ has been leading the movement with support from international media organizations.

Seven parties' alliance, civil society and different professional organization have also demanding the basic rights and democracy.

Such separate and joint movements can be helpful to fulfill our demands but it is necessary to go ahead with broader alliance. If all sectors join the movement demanding democracy, there will be more possibility to restoration of democracy.

Every nation has its own set of problems. Everybody needs to work for the solution of the problem but before Nepalese could do that it is necessary for us to have democracy. If democracy is restored, there will be suitable environment to solve many other problems of the country. There will be also appropriate atmosphere for press freedom. Media can disseminate news and views without prior restraints from any sectors.

Glossary
Advertisement
· the promotion of a product or service
Advocacy Journalism
· a style of journalism in which a reporter takes sides in controversial issues and develops a point of view
· a style of journalism which is opposite of mainstream journalism, in which reporters are expected to be objective
Angle Particular emphasis of a media presentation, sometimes called a slant. Journalist collects information and writes news about their after angle.
By-line
· the name of the reporter
Caption
· Description of photo is called caption
Classified ads
· short, direct text ads which clearly indicate WHAT is being advertised, the PRICE, WHERE, and HOW the advertiser can be contacted
Column
· an article in which a writer or columnist gives an opinion on a topic
Copy
· any written material intended for publication, including advertising
Copyreader
· the person who "proofreads" copy as it comes in, checking for spelling, punctuation, accuracy of style, and clarity
Credibility
· believability of a writer or publication
Date line
· the place the story was filed
Display ads
· ads that include a visual image to advertise a product or service
Editor
· Chief person of a media who lead the news section. He is also know as the person whose job is to approve copy when it comes in and to make decisions about what is published in a newspaper or magazine
Editorial
· an article expressing a newspaper or magazine owner’s or editor’s position on an issue
Facts sheet
· a page of significant information prepared by Public Relations people to help news media in covering a special event
Feature article
· the main article on the front page of a newspaper, or the cover story in a magazine
Five Ws and H
· the primary questions a news story answers --Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
Gatekeepers
· people who determine what will be printed, broadcast, produced, or consumed in the mass media
Hard news stories
· Factual accounts of important events, usually appearing first in a newspaper. Written in direct way.
Headline
· the "title" of a newspaper or magazine story
Human interest story
· a story that focuses on the human side of news and often appeals to the readers’ emotion
Inverted pyramid
· the structure of a news story which places the important facts at the beginning and less important facts and details at the end, enabling the editor to cut bottom portion of the story if space is required
Investigative journalism
· a story that requires a great amount of research and hard work to come up with facts that might be hidden, buried, or obscured by people who have a vested interest in keeping those facts from being published
Jump line
· line of type at the bottom of a column which directs the reader to somewhere else in the paper where the story is completed, allowing more space for stories to begin on the front page
Layout editor
· the person who begins the layout plan, considering things like placement and amount of space allotted to news and advertising copy, graphics, photos, and symbols
Lead
· the first sentence or first few sentences of a story
Libel
· publishing in print (or other media) false information that identifies and defames an individual
Managing editor
· the person who co-ordinates all news departments by collecting all copy and ensuring that all instructions for printer or typist are clear and consistent
· the person who meets and consults with the staff to make a plan
Masthead
· the "banner" across the front page which identifies the newspaper and the date of publication
· the publication information on the editorial page
Off the record
· something a source does not want repeated in a news story
Op-ed page
· a page in a newspaper that is opposite the editorial page, and contains columns, articles, letters for readers, and other items expressing opinions
Photos
· still images which communicate the photojournalist’s angle or perceived reality
Reporters
· the people who gather facts for the stories they are assigned to write
Sidebar
· a column of copy and/or graphics which appears on the page of a magazine or newspaper to communicate information about the story or contents of the paper
Soft news
· stories that are interesting but less important than hard news, focusing on people as well as facts and information and including interviews, reviews, articles, and editorials
Source
· a person who talks to a reporter on the record, for attribution in a news story
Summary lead
· the traditional journalism tool used to start off most hard news stories
· the first few sentences of a news story which usually summarizes the event and answers the questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
Tabloid
· technically, a publication half the size of a standard newspaper page; but commonly, any newspaper that is splashy and heavily illustrated
· a "supermarket" tabloid that stresses dramatic stories, often about sensational subjects
Trend story
· a feature story that focuses on the current fads, directions, tendencies, and inclinations of society
Wire services / News agency
· services that provide news from around the world to publications that subscribe for a fee (e.g., Associated Press, Canadian Press, Reuters, and United Press International)
· co-operatives that share news stories among members (e.g., Canadian Press)


Press Freedom and Fundamental Rights Related Provisions in Constitution of the
Kingdom of Nepal 1990(2047)

PART 3

Press Freedom

Freedom of the press is the major building block in democracy. Freedom of expression and freedom of the press are the major pillars of a democratic society, providing continued life blood for democracy. Freedom of the press means freedom from despotic control by the government. Press freedom is the right to get information, right to print or broadcast without prior restraint and the rights to print or broadcast without fear, threat or duress. Press Freedom is essential for the media to perform its essential functions in a democratic society. The media must be free from all influences that induce bias, misreporting and distortion of facts. Freedom of expression is the fundamental condition for the exercise of every other form of freedom. Its presence is the warranty that the weight of the majority will not be translated into an oppression of minorities The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990 in its chapter under Fundamental Rights deals with the Rights to Press and Publication. According to Articles 13, no news item, articles or any other reading materials shall be censored. Article 13 also adds that no Press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or any reading materials.
act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.
(2) No press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or other reading material.
(3) The registration of a newspaper or periodical shall not be canceled merely for publishing any news item, article or other reading material.


Limitations on Freedom of the press
Freedom o the press however is no absolute. Press is a great power but as the flooded river sweeps the grains in the same way uncontrolled pen invites destruction rather than creation. Therefore, there needs certain limitation of freedom. Freedom provides responsibility to press, without responsibility is not press. Without a lively sense of responsibility a free press may readily become a powerful instrument of injustice. Freedom dose not mean defamation of an individual or law, contempt of court, act of libel or involvement on any illegal activities. Liberty can not mean license to achieve authoritarian power. Press freedom should be used in the public interest in the democratic society press has no right to make the public corrupted, to encourage the crime to break the peace to threat the accountable government, to harm individual etc.
All countries have made some reasonable restrictions in freedom of press. The principle has long been established that the pres may not be used in circumstances that would create a clear and present danger of bringing about serous consequences to some significant interest that government has right or duty protect. Similarly another important limit on the free pres is the law of libel, involving the defamation of a person, false accusation, or exposure of someone to hatred ridicule or pecuniary loss.

The constitution of kingdom of Nepal 2047 has also made some reasonable restrictions. In article 13 there can find obligation about press freedom are: on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.

To protect other rights is also the duty of press. Protection of fame, protection of privacy, protection secrecy, protection of National security, protection public health, protection of public morale, protection of public pace and good governance are the basis of pre censorship of the press freedom.

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS which mention on the present constitution

11. Right to Equality:
(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion (dharma), race (varya), sex (li_ga), caste (jât), tribe (jâti) or ideological conviction (vaicârik) or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, or ideological conviction or any of these.
Provided that special provisions may be made by law for the protection and advancement of the interests of women, children, the aged or those who are physically or mentally incapacitated or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or educationally backward.
(4) No person shall, on the basis of caste, be discriminated against as untouchable, be denied access to any public place, or be deprived of the use of public utilities. Any contravention of this provision shall be punishable by law.
(5) No discrimination in regard to remuneration shall be made between men and women for the same work.
12. Right to Freedom:
(1) No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save in accordance with law, and no law shall be made which provides for capital punishment.
(2) All citizens shall have the following freedoms:
(a) freedom of opinion and expression;
(b) freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms;
(c) freedom to form unions and associations;
(d) freedom to move throughout the Kingdom and reside in any part thereof; and
(e) freedom to practise any profession, or to carry on any occupation, industry, or trade.
Provided that -
(1) nothing in sub-clause (a) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities, or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act which may be contrary to decent public behaviour or morality;
(2) nothing in sub-clause (b) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty, integrity or law and order situation of the Kingdom of Nepal;
(3) nothing in sub-clause (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities, which may instigate violence, or which may be contrary to public morality;
(4) nothing in sub-clause (d) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws which are in the interest of the general public, or which are made to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities;
(5) nothing in sub-clause (e) shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose restriction on any act which may be contrary to public health or morality, to confer on the State the exclusive right to undertake specified industries, businesses or services; or to impose any condition or qualification for carrying on any industry, trade, profession or occupation.
13. Press and Publication Right:
(1) No news item, article or any other reading material shall be censored.
Provided that nothing shall prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the sovereignty and integrity of the Kingdom of Nepal, or which may jeopardize the harmonious relations subsisting among the peoples of various castes, tribes or communities; or on any act of sedition, defamation, contempt of court or incitement to an offence; or on any act against which may be contrary to decent public behavior or morality.
(2) No press shall be closed or seized for printing any news item, article or other reading material.
(3) The registration of a newspaper or periodical shall not be canceled merely for publishing any news item, article or other reading material.
14. Right Regarding Criminal Justice:
(1) No person shall be punished for an act which was not punishable by law when the act was committed, nor shall any person be subjected to a punishment greater than that prescribed by the law in force at the time of the commission of the offence.
(2) No person shall be prosecuted or punished for the same offence in a court of law more than once.
(3) No person accused of any offence shall be compelled to be a witness against himself.
(4) No person who is detained during investigation or for trial or for any other reason shall be subjected to physical or mental torture, nor shall be given any cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. Any person so treated shall be compensated in a manner as determined by law.
(5) No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest, nor shall be denied the right to consult and be defended by a legal practitioner of his choice.
Explanation: For the purpose of this clause, the words "legal practitioner" shall mean any person who is authorized by law to represent any person in any court.
(6) Every person who is arrested and detained in custody shall be produced before a judicial authority within a period of twenty-four hours after such arrest, excluding the time necessary for the journey from the place of arrest to such authority, and no such person shall be detained in custody beyond the said period except on the order of such authority.
(7) Nothing in clauses (5) and (6) shall apply to a citizen of an enemy state, and nothing in clause (6) shall apply to any person who is arrested or detained under any law providing for preventive detention.
15. Right against Preventive Detention:
(1) No person shall be held under preventive detention unless there is a sufficient ground of existence of an immediate threat to the sovereignty, integrity or law and order situation of the Kingdom of Nepal.
(2) Any person held under preventive detention shall, if his detention was contrary to law or in bad faith, have the right to be compensated in a manner as prescribed by law.
16. Right to Information:
Every citizen shall have the right to demand and receive information on any matter of public importance;
Provided that nothing in this Article shall compel any person to provide information on any matter about which secrecy is to be maintained by law.
17. Right to Property:
(1) All citizens shall, subject to the existing laws, have the right to acquire, own, sell and otherwise dispose of, property.
(2) The State shall not, except in the public interest, requisition, acquire or create any encumbrance on, the property of any person.
(3) The basis of compensation and procedure for giving compensation for any property requisitioned, acquired or encumbered by the State for in the public interest, shall be as prescribed by law.
18. Cultural and Educational Right:
(1) Each community residing within the Kingdom of Nepal shall have the right to preserve and promote its language, script and culture.
(2) Each community shall have the right to operate schools up to the primary level in its own mother tongue for imparting education to its children.
19. Right to Religion:
(1) Every person shall have the freedom to profess and practise his own religion as handed down to him from ancient times having due regard to traditional practices;
provided that no person shall be entitled to convert another person from one religion to another.[3]
(2) Every religious denomination shall have the right to maintain its independent existence and for this purpose to manage and protect its religious places and trusts.
20. Right against Exploitation:
(1) Traffic in human beings, slavery, serfdom or forced labour in any form is prohibited. Any contravention of this provision shall be punishable by law;
Provided that nothing herein shall be a bar to providing by law for compulsory service for public purposes.
(2) No minor shall be employed in work in any factory or mine, or be engaged in any other hazardous work.
21. Right against Exile:
No citizen shall be exiled.
22. Right to Privacy:
Except as provided by law, the privacy of the person, house, property, document, correspondence or information of anyone is inviolable.
23. Right to Constitutional Remedy:
The right to proceed in the manner set forth in Article 88 for the enforcement of the rights conferred by this Part is guaranteed.

General concept of human rights
Human rights mean the fundamental right of the every member of the human community. Human right means the guaranteed rights for religion, language, gender, ethnicity, origin, nationality,, economic, social national frontier etc. Obtaining or using every right without any discrimination is human rights.
The universal declaration of human rights 1948 has defined the human rights thus Disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people.
It means every individual should use his\ her freedom of expression and religion and they should be free from any threats and lack of different basic necessities.
National human right commission has defined human rights as the rights of individual related to life, freedom, equality and dignity that are provided by the constitution and other existing laws. The commission has also said that it also concerns with the rights provided by the international laws and convention since Nepal is the member countries of these all conventions.

The concept of human rights came with the establishment of United Nations in 1945. United Nations (UN), international organization of countries created to promote world peace and cooperation. The UN was founded after world war ended in 1945 its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relation between countries, promote cooperation in solving the worlds problems and encourage respect for human rights.
Realizing the growing sense of insecurity, the universal declaration of Human right adopted by the United Nations UN in 1948. It gave human right a new international legal status. Building on precedents set by the British Magna Carata (1215) the French declaration of the rights of man (1789) and the United States Bill of rights (1791) the universal declaration also reflected the events of the 1930 s and 1940s particularly the Nazi Holocaust. Reporter of Nazi atrocities shocked people around the world and gave momentum to an effort to codify human rights in international law.
According to the preamble UN declaration, human rights means recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation freedom justice and peace in the world. Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort to rebellion against tyranny and oppression that human rights should be protected by the rule of law.
It is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations. The peoples of the United nation have in the charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human right, in the dignity and worth of the human person the in the equal right of mean and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom. Whereas member states have pledged themselves to achieve, in co operation with the United nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Similarly a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge.
The Vienna conference of United Nations on human rights in 1993 has insisted that the human rights are universal and common. All the nations of the world have honored the Vienna declarations as member of United Nations.

But some rights have been accepted as basic human rights despite all the right are treated as equally important. These basic human rights are as follows

1. Right to live-Every person shall have the right to personal freedom and self security. The article 3 of UN declaration on human rights 1948 has protected the right to live as the most important and basic right. Every nation of democratic norms and values has guaranteed the right to live in its constitution
2. Right to shelter - Appropriate residence and necessary services are regarded as basic human rights. The respective governments should have the responsibility to provide home and other basic needs to the people can not use other rights properly.
3. Right to earn live - Every person shall have the right to earn his life. Right to work right to join government services are the basic rights of the people.
4. Right to nutrition and health - Right to health and food are regarded as human rights since it has great important in human lives. Every person should have right to export and import the essential foods and the government's should be provided them needy food.
5. Right to Education - Everybody has the right to education. Education is remained as focus of economic, social and cultural development and rights. Moreover, the secondary education should be provided freely to the citizens.
6. Right to religion - Every citizen shall have the right to choose the religion according to his desire.
7. Right to vote or right to be candidate - Every person shall have right to vote to representatives and to be the candidate for the election.
8. Right to information - Every citizen shall have the right to know the public issues. Every government should provide the states careen lives information to them.
9. Right to economy - Every citizen shall have the right to earn the money. Economy is closely tied up with the rights to live.
10 Constitutional remedy
11 Right To privacy

Development of human rights in Nepal
Nepal has a very short history of human rights development because it was most of the time ruled by autocracy where human right was no allowed. The 104 years Rana regime and then 30 years panchayati system were totally autocratic. At that time people right to protest against the ruler or ruling system was totally banned. That why there was not a chance of honoring human rights at that time. Though, occasional discussions were held since the establishment of United Nations had raised this question of human dignity.
The real honor of Nepal to human right introduced with the promulgation of the constitution 2047 that was brought with the popular movement of 2046. The constitution has guaranteed the right of the Nepal citizens. The constitution is called among the best south Asia in terms of providing right to the pole. Later in 2053 B.S National human rights commission was established to look after the issues of human rights violated by state and other concern actors. Even in parliament, there is human rights and foreign affairs committee that also draws attention of the concern actors on violation of basic rights of the citizens.
Moreover, there are laws passed by constitution which are subordinate to the constitution and other national and international conventions. For example there is children act, labor act, trade union act etc that are related with the right of them and with the human rights in wholesome.

Democracy and Press Freedom
§ Bhuwan KC

No doubt, democracy and press freedom are two wheels of a chariot. One isn't complete without the other. Press can stay alive in the political system of authoritarian and communism but press freedom is not possible without democracy.

US Agency for International Development (USAID ) report entitled the role of media in democracy: a strategic approach mentioned that media activities should not be viewed in isolation from other areas of democracy.

In the context of Nepal, there is no democracy since the Royal Proclamation. In February 1, 2005, King Gyanendra held the executive power himself and became chief of state by dismissing the government led by the leaders of political parties . The word 'democracy' is mentioned many times in the royal address, but, in fact, there is no democracy in the nation. John Hospers, professor of Department of Philosophy at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles said that every system of government wants to call itself a democracy, even if it is actually a dictatorship. Believing autocracy, the king is trying to apply the opinion of Hospers.

Former president of America Abraham Lincoln defined the democracy as government of the people, for the people and by the people. This definition is the most popular. But in Nepal, there is nothing to suit with this definition. The King has been tried to establish democracy as of the king, for the king and by the king. He mentions the 'people' time and again but rules without addressing the demands of majority of the people.

To be democracy in a nation, there should be certain norms and values. There must be rulers who have been elected by majority of people from a fair election. Samuel P Huntington, political analyst, said that open, independent and fair election were the compulsory elements of democracy. Government should have responsible for rule of law, transparency, press freedom and human rights. It is believed that democracy is the majority's rule and policy is decided by the preference to them. However, there are not any of these basic norms in our nation during the period of a year.

There is not any provision in the present constitution, for the King to be executive chief of state. Even though, he has held the power of state, nominated two vice-chairman and ministers to those who have no public mandate.

There is no responsibility and transparency in the government. Many persons of the cabinet have been involved in nepotism to the king instead of filling the desire of people. After the royal takeover, there have been so many events of security lapses, price hikes, and ignorance to problems of people, corruption and criminal activities. People have no option to follow even if the rulers are neglecting their voices. The people need to know what the government is doing. Unfortunately, many have no knowledge of the activities of government.

The king and his supporters claimed that the nation has been ruled by article 127 of present constitution. This is also baseless logic. Actually, the king and his supporters misinterpreted the provision and describe it according to their interest. The provision gives the authority to the King to solve the crisis, if any. But there is not any progress about solving the crisis of nation. On the contrary, the crisis of nation is growing. The tremendous political crisis shows that the king has failed to end the crisis of the nation.

It is clear that the king's Feb 1 move wasn't a result of good intention. At the time, on the one hand, he gave a lecture of multiparty democracy and on the other hand ordered the security mechanism to arrest the leaders of democratic parties.

Independent media faced similar problem. The king portrayed independent media as the means of increasing awareness of democracy, but sent security forces to the media houses. Soon after the royal takeover, government declared of state of emergency suspending the fundamental rights of people.

Independent media became victimized. Army censored media content, seized some newspapers from press, and some newspapers were closed in out of valley because of local administration interference. Journalists have been arrested and intimidated by the security forces and local administration.

Government ordered electronic media not to broadcast matters against Royal Takeover and ordered print media not to publish any news, article and interviews which were against the intention of King's step for six months.

Government continued rigid attitudes even after the end of state of emergency. Security forces compelled media for self-censorship, government launched new media ordinance, attacked on radio stations, introduced one door advertisement policy and was able to form parallel organization of Federation of Nepalese Journalist (FNJ).

During last decade, the insurgent Maoists has also attacked press repeatedly. Terry Davis, Secretary General of the Council of Europe said that media freedom is one of the main pillars of a democratic state, and any attack on this freedom it is an attack on democracy itself.

The government claimed that they want to systematize media. But reality is different. Actually they want to control media to suppress people's voices.

Journalists have fought against the royal takeover from the very beginning. They have been trying to protect press freedom through court, media and even demanding it on street. FNJ has been leading the movement with support from international media organizations.

Seven parties' alliance, civil society and different professional organization have also demanding the basic rights and democracy.

Such separate and joint movements can be helpful to fulfill our demands but it is necessary to go ahead with broader alliance. If all sectors join the movement demanding democracy, there will be more possibility to restoration of democracy.

Every nation has its own set of problems. Everybody needs to work for the solution of the problem but before Nepalese could do that it is necessary for us to have democracy. If democracy is restored, there will be suitable environment to solve many other problems of the country. There will be also appropriate atmosphere for press freedom. Media can disseminate news and views without prior restraints from any sectors.

Glossary
Advertisement
· the promotion of a product or service
Advocacy Journalism
· a style of journalism in which a reporter takes sides in controversial issues and develops a point of view
· a style of journalism which is opposite of mainstream journalism, in which reporters are expected to be objective
Angle Particular emphasis of a media presentation, sometimes called a slant. Journalist collects information and writes news about their after angle.
By-line
· the name of the reporter
Caption
· Description of photo is called caption
Classified ads
· short, direct text ads which clearly indicate WHAT is being advertised, the PRICE, WHERE, and HOW the advertiser can be contacted
Column
· an article in which a writer or columnist gives an opinion on a topic
Copy
· any written material intended for publication, including advertising
Copyreader
· the person who "proofreads" copy as it comes in, checking for spelling, punctuation, accuracy of style, and clarity
Credibility
· believability of a writer or publication
Date line
· the place the story was filed
Display ads
· ads that include a visual image to advertise a product or service
Editor
· Chief person of a media who lead the news section. He is also know as the person whose job is to approve copy when it comes in and to make decisions about what is published in a newspaper or magazine
Editorial
· an article expressing a newspaper or magazine owner’s or editor’s position on an issue
Facts sheet
· a page of significant information prepared by Public Relations people to help news media in covering a special event
Feature article
· the main article on the front page of a newspaper, or the cover story in a magazine
Five Ws and H
· the primary questions a news story answers --Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
Gatekeepers
· people who determine what will be printed, broadcast, produced, or consumed in the mass media
Hard news stories
· Factual accounts of important events, usually appearing first in a newspaper. Written in direct way.
Headline
· the "title" of a newspaper or magazine story
Human interest story
· a story that focuses on the human side of news and often appeals to the readers’ emotion
Inverted pyramid
· the structure of a news story which places the important facts at the beginning and less important facts and details at the end, enabling the editor to cut bottom portion of the story if space is required
Investigative journalism
· a story that requires a great amount of research and hard work to come up with facts that might be hidden, buried, or obscured by people who have a vested interest in keeping those facts from being published
Jump line
· line of type at the bottom of a column which directs the reader to somewhere else in the paper where the story is completed, allowing more space for stories to begin on the front page
Layout editor
· the person who begins the layout plan, considering things like placement and amount of space allotted to news and advertising copy, graphics, photos, and symbols
Lead
· the first sentence or first few sentences of a story
Libel
· publishing in print (or other media) false information that identifies and defames an individual
Managing editor
· the person who co-ordinates all news departments by collecting all copy and ensuring that all instructions for printer or typist are clear and consistent
· the person who meets and consults with the staff to make a plan
Masthead
· the "banner" across the front page which identifies the newspaper and the date of publication
· the publication information on the editorial page
Off the record
· something a source does not want repeated in a news story
Op-ed page
· a page in a newspaper that is opposite the editorial page, and contains columns, articles, letters for readers, and other items expressing opinions
Photos
· still images which communicate the photojournalist’s angle or perceived reality
Reporters
· the people who gather facts for the stories they are assigned to write
Sidebar
· a column of copy and/or graphics which appears on the page of a magazine or newspaper to communicate information about the story or contents of the paper
Soft news
· stories that are interesting but less important than hard news, focusing on people as well as facts and information and including interviews, reviews, articles, and editorials
Source
· a person who talks to a reporter on the record, for attribution in a news story
Summary lead
· the traditional journalism tool used to start off most hard news stories
· the first few sentences of a news story which usually summarizes the event and answers the questions: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
Tabloid
· technically, a publication half the size of a standard newspaper page; but commonly, any newspaper that is splashy and heavily illustrated
· a "supermarket" tabloid that stresses dramatic stories, often about sensational subjects
Trend story
· a feature story that focuses on the current fads, directions, tendencies, and inclinations of society
Wire services / News agency
· services that provide news from around the world to publications that subscribe for a fee (e.g., Associated Press, Canadian Press, Reuters, and United Press International)
· co-operatives that share news stories among members (e.g., Canadian Press)